The concept of a whole community approach has been recommended for years. However, it has perhaps
not been more important than it is today. Compounding events, or disasters within disasters, are why
emergency planners stress the importance of planning for the worst but hoping for the best. Well, the
time to implement these plans is now. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic does not appear to be ending anytime
soon. However, life must go on. “Normal” seasonal disasters like wildfires, hurricanes, earthquakes, and
floods will not wait for communities to replenish supplies, reallocate resources, and hire more staff.
Human-caused threats may escalate as bad actors take advantage of physical and technological
vulnerabilities that the pandemic exposes. The common primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of
smaller threats worsen when compounded with the pandemic response.